CognitOps Insights

Warehouse Labor

The Modern Warehouse Workforce


Over the past thirty years, warehouse labor has undergone significant transformation, evolving from manual, labor-intensive work to highly sophisticated and technology-driven operations. 

Today, the landscape of warehouse labor is heavily influenced by advancements in technology and changes to the workforce. Modern warehouses employ a range of automated solutions, including robotics, conveyor systems, and sophisticated inventory management software. Technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) play a crucial role in optimizing operations, enhancing accuracy, and improving overall efficiency. Autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) and drones are now commonly used for inventory checks and order picking, significantly reducing human error and labor costs. Labor Management Systems (LMS) provide greater insight into individual and team efficiency, productivity, and execution, helping to improve warehouse performance. Finally, the digital-native workforce entering the market today and in the future expects technology to be woven into every aspect of their lives and careers. 

AI and IOT and Warehouse Labor

warehouse laborArtificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have profoundly transformed warehouse labor, driving unprecedented efficiency and accuracy. AI algorithms are utilized to optimize various warehouse operations, such as inventory management, demand forecasting, and route planning for picking and packing. These algorithms can analyze vast amounts of data in real time, enabling warehouses to maintain optimal stock levels, reduce waste, and ensure timely order fulfillment. AI-powered systems also enhance decision-making processes, allowing human workers to focus on more complex tasks that require critical thinking and problem-solving skills rather than repetitive manual labor.

The Internet of Things (IoT) further amplifies these efficiencies by providing real-time visibility into warehouse operations through interconnected devices and sensors. IoT technology allows for precise tracking of inventory, equipment, and even worker movements, ensuring that all elements of the warehouse are operating in harmony. This connectivity facilitates predictive maintenance of machinery, reducing downtime and improving overall productivity. Additionally, IoT-enabled wearable devices can monitor worker health and safety, alerting them to potential hazards and ensuring a safer working environment.

Together, AI and IoT create a synergistic effect that not only streamlines operations but also enhances the roles of human workers by integrating intelligent automation with real-time data insights.

The Growth and Adoption of Labor Management Systems 

A Labor Management System (LMS) is a software application designed to manage and optimize the workforce within a warehouse or distribution center. LMS help in tracking labor productivity, planning and scheduling work, and ensuring efficient utilization of human resources. By providing detailed insights into individual and team performance, an LMS can identify areas for improvement and help implement labor standards and best practices. 

The LMS concept emerged in the mid to late 20th century as a response to the growing need for efficient workforce management in various industries, including warehousing and logistics. LMS adoption can be attributed to technological advancements, evolving business needs, and the emergence of computerized data management.

Early iterations of labor management tools can be traced back to the 1970s and 1980s when companies began experimenting with computer-based systems to track and manage employee productivity. These early systems primarily focused on time and attendance tracking, payroll processing, and basic scheduling.

As technology continued to evolve, especially with the arrival of more sophisticated software solutions and advancements in data analytics, labor management systems capabilities have expanded. By the 1990s and 2000s, LMS became more integrated and comprehensive, offering features such as performance tracking, task management, and optimization of labor resources.

Today, a wide range of companies, including software developers specializing in warehouse management systems (WMS), supply chain management, and human resources, offer LMS solutions tailored to meet the specific needs of different industries. Examples include Körber Supply Chain’s K.Motion LMS, Manhattan Associates’ Labor Management, Blue Yonder’s Labor Management, HighJump Labor Management, and SAP Extended Warehouse Management (EWM).

For workers, an LMS can offer several benefits, such as clear performance expectations and goals, which help them understand what is expected and how to achieve it. High-performing workers can be identified and rewarded based on objective data, leading to increased motivation and job satisfaction. Additionally, LMS can identify skill gaps and provide targeted training programs, helping workers enhance their skills and advance their careers. 

For warehouse management, LMS improves productivity by enabling better planning and allocation of labor resources. Management can make informed decisions based on real-time data and comprehensive performance metrics, leading to higher efficiency in warehouse operations. Labor cost savings can be another significant benefit, as optimizing labor usage and reducing overtime can lead to substantial financial savings. 

However, implementing an LMS also necessitates changes in processes and workflows, which can face resistance from workers and require careful management. Both the initial setup and ongoing maintenance of an LMS can be expensive and require substantial investment in technology and training. Frequently, systems are allowed to languish when there is no resource to manually maintain them. Moreover, legacy LMS only measure historical performance and don’t provide insight into current day and projected performance.

Because of these challenges, companies that don’t yet have a full-scale LMS may want to explore other options, such as an “LMS-lite.”

“Nothing turns people off faster than paper, green screens, and bad Glassdoor reviews.”

– CEO Alex Ramirez, DC Perform interview

The Amazon Effect on Warehouse Labor

Over the past 30 years, companies like Amazon, founded in 1994, have revolutionized warehouse labor through the innovative use of technology and relentless pursuit of efficiency. 

Amazon’s impact on warehouse labor aligns closely with the rise of Labor Management Systems (LMS), as both reflect a broader trend toward leveraging technology to optimize workforce management and improve operational efficiency. While Amazon has not publicly disclosed the use of a traditional LMS, the company employs a variety of technologies and data-driven approaches to manage worker performance and enhance productivity in its warehouses.

One key technology Amazon utilizes is its proprietary Amazon Robotics system (formerly known as Kiva Systems), which automates various aspects of warehouse operations, including picking, packing, and transporting goods. These robots are integrated with sophisticated algorithms that optimize workflow and resource allocation, contributing to overall efficiency and productivity.

Additionally, Amazon relies heavily on data analytics and machine learning algorithms to monitor and manage worker performance. The company tracks various metrics, such as individual productivity, order accuracy, and efficiency in completing tasks, to identify areas for improvement and provide targeted coaching and training to employees. Amazon’s extensive use of real-time data analytics allows for dynamic adjustments to staffing levels, task assignments, and workflow optimization, ensuring optimal performance across its vast network of fulfillment centers.

While Amazon’s approach to managing worker performance may differ from traditional LMS solutions, the underlying principles remain the same: leveraging technology and data-driven insights to maximize efficiency, productivity, and operational excellence in warehouse operations. 

Amazon’s innovations have profoundly impacted industry standards and labor practices. By utilizing data analytics to monitor and manage worker performance, Amazon has introduced a new level of oversight and productivity in warehouse labor, though not without sparking debates about worker conditions. The company’s success has pushed competitors to adopt similar technologies and practices, leading to a widespread transformation in warehouse operations. As a result, setting new benchmarks for efficiency and productivity while also prompting discussions about the future of work in warehousing.

CognitOps | White LogoCognitOps drives warehouse labor optimization

CognitOps Align pulls together your warehouse data, applies machine learning models and delivers insights to help you manage and optimize your warehouse labor. 

Pick Labor Planning

1) Future Labor Planning: Warehouse leaders can look up to 7 days out, planning shift by shift to achieve daily performance against throughput targets such as Goals, Dropped Work, Scheduled Workers, or SLAs.  

2) Measure 3 Core Labor Metrics:

  • Productivity: How much did each user produce during their time on task and their time logged in doing work? This productivity measurement is important to compare raw production for each worker.
  • Utilization: For all the time working in a department, how much time did they actually spend doing work? This gives visibility into team utilization. The higher the utilization, the better the team is performing.
  • Efficiency: How effective are my workers in the tasks they perform? Efficiency compares the actual work rate for an individual against the expected work rate for a given group of tasks.
kpi dashboard

Performance Pulse for Today

3) Performance Pulse: This unique, new metric combines utilization and efficiency metrics to give a holistic view of worker efficacy. The data science-based forecast looks at the day of the week, staffing, and work volume to create a baseline or target Performance Pulse, Utilization, and Efficiency value for each day and shift within a day. Supervisors can adjust workers, worker location, and priority throughout the day to ensure they stay on track.

>>Learn More…

Preparing for Digital-Native Warehouse Workers

As warehouse operations continue to evolve in the digital age, warehouse workers from the digital-native generation are expected to have distinct expectations regarding the integration of technology in their workplace. For these workers, who have grown up surrounded by technology, seamless integration of digital tools and systems will be a fundamental aspect of their work environment. They will anticipate intuitive interfaces, mobile accessibility, and real-time data insights to streamline their tasks and enhance productivity.

warehouse laborDigital-native warehouse workers will likely prioritize connectivity and collaboration in their work environment. They will expect communication platforms and collaboration tools that enable seamless interaction with colleagues and supervisors, regardless of physical location within the warehouse. Additionally, they may anticipate the use of wearable devices or augmented reality (AR) technology to facilitate hands-free communication and access to information, allowing for greater flexibility and efficiency in completing tasks.

Moreover, digital-native workers will likely seek opportunities for continuous learning and skill development. They may expect access to training resources and digital learning platforms that offer interactive modules and simulations to enhance their knowledge and proficiency in operating new technologies. As technology continues to advance, these workers will embrace a mindset of adaptability and lifelong learning, seeking to leverage new tools and systems to improve their performance and stay competitive in the rapidly evolving landscape of warehouse operations.

warehouse labor

In a tight labor market, the competition to hire digital-native workers for warehouse positions becomes increasingly fierce as companies vie for talent looking for flexible schedules with the opportunity to grow. With digital skills in high demand across industries, warehouse employers must offer competitive compensation packages, attractive workplace benefits, and opportunities for career advancement to attract and retain talent. Additionally, companies may need to invest in comprehensive training programs and professional development initiatives tailored to the needs and preferences of digital-native workers, demonstrating a commitment to supporting their growth and success within the organization. 

As CEO Alex Ramirez said in his DC Perform interview, “Nothing turns people off faster than paper, green screens, and bad Glassdoor reviews.” 

In this competitive landscape, employers who prioritize a tech-savvy and flexible workplace culture will have a strategic advantage in attracting and retaining skilled workers who contribute to the ongoing digital transformation of warehouse operations.


Throughout these warehouse technology advancements and workforce transitions, human workers remain essential, particularly for roles that require complex decision-making and adaptability. The integration of technology in warehouses will continue to evolve, shaping a dynamic environment where human labor and technology coexist and complement each other. Supply chain leaders must keep a close eye on the innovations that will drive the future. 

See how CognitOps can help you optimize your warehouse workforce: 

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